Basic Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy
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Each book provides a concise account of the basic principles underlying a given subject, embodying an independent-learning philosophy and including worked examples. Fills an important gap An ideal introductory text for undergraduate students, and I hope that many students, and I hope that many students will use it to supplement their existing general text books of physical chemistry. The book will also provide a good recap in the subject for those who want to take their study on to postgraduate level.
I will be prescribing Holla's text for my students. This ends a search for a suitable spectroscopy text, which has lasted several years. I highly recommend the book to you as a class text. It would also be a worthwhile addition to the departmental library or your personal reference library. Added to basket. Introduction to Spectroscopy. James R. A History of European Mass Spectrometry. Keith R. Interpreting Organic Spectra. David Whittaker. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Peter Hore.outtecabocut.ga
FAFN25-FYST14 Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy
Statistics for the Quality Control Chemistry Laboratory. Eamonn Mullins.
Symmetry and Spectroscopy. Daniel C. Foundations of Molecular Structure Determination. Simon Duckett. Introduction to Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy.
Mitsuo Tasumi. Skoog and West's Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Stanley Crouch. Your review has been submitted successfully. Not registered? Forgotten password Please enter your email address below and we'll send you a link to reset your password. Not you? For the simplest atom, hydrogen , which consists of a single proton and a single electron , the energy levels have been calculated and tested to an uncertainty of better than one part in 10 11 , but for atoms with many electrons, the accuracy of the calculations may not be much better than a few percent of the energy of the levels.
Atomic energy levels are typically measured by observing transitions between two levels. For example, an atom in its lowest possible energy state called the ground state can be excited to a higher state only if energy is added by an amount that is equal to the difference between the two levels.
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Thus, by measuring the energy of the radiation that has been absorbed by the atom, the difference in its energy levels can be determined. The energy levels are identical for atoms of the same type; allowed energies of a particular atom of silver are equal to those for any other atom of the same isotope of silver. Other isolated systems, including molecules , ions charged atoms or molecules , and atomic nuclei, have discrete allowed energies.
The analysis of these simple systems is carried out with techniques that are analogous to those that were first applied to simple atomic spectra. More complex structures, such as clusters of atoms, and bulk condensed matter, such as solids and liquids , also have energy levels describable by quantum mechanics.
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The energy levels in these complex systems, however, are so closely spaced that they smear into a continuous band of energies. Transitions between these bands allow researchers to discern many important properties of a given material. The location and properties of the energy states are often referred to as the electronic structure of the material. If an atom in its ground state is given some amount of energy so that it is promoted to an excited state, the atom will release that extra energy spontaneously as it moves back into lower states, eventually returning to the ground state.
For an isolated atom, the energy is emitted as electromagnetic radiation. Conversely, the relationship allows the energy states of an atom to be determined from measurements of its frequency or wavelength spectrum.
ISBN 13: 9780854046676
The analysis of the discrete wavelengths emitted or absorbed by an atom or molecule was historically carried out using prism or grating spectrometers; because of the appearance of the separated light in these instruments, these discrete wavelengths are sometimes called spectral lines. The basis for analytical spectroscopy is the discovery, made in by the German physicist Gustav R.
Kirchhoff , that each pure substance has its own characteristic spectrum. These dark lines, sometimes called Fraunhofer lines , are also collectively referred to as an absorption spectrum. The spectra of materials that were heated in flames or placed in electric-gas discharges were studied by many scientists during the 18th and 19th centuries. These spectra were composed of numerous bright discrete lines, indicating that only certain wavelengths were present in the emitted light.
They are called brightline, or emission, spectra. Although the possibility that each chemical element has a unique characteristic spectrum had been considered by numerous investigators, the early studies were hampered by the difficulty of obtaining relatively pure substances. Any sample could contain impurities that would result in the simultaneous production of many spectra. By using carefully purified substances, Kirchhoff demonstrated characteristic spectra and initiated the technique of spectroscopic analysis of the chemical composition of matter.
Basic Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (Hollas, J. Michael) | Journal of Chemical Education
Before the 20th century, there was no theory that could satisfactorily explain the origin of the spectra of the elements or the reason why different elements have different spectra. The quantitative understanding of the elemental spectra needed the development of a fundamentally new physical theory, and the spectra of the simplest atoms played the key role in the development of this theory. Many of the major developments in 20th-century physics were motivated by an ever-increasing accuracy in the measurement of the spectra of the hydrogen atom; highlights include the discovery in by the Swiss scientist Johann J.