The Psychology of Group Perception
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7 Gestalt principles of visual perception: cognitive psychology for UX
Zuckerman, M. Costs of self-handicapping. Journal of Personality, 73 2 , — Individual Differences in Person Perception by Dr. Rajiv Jhangiani and Dr. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Perceiving Others. Explain the ways that attributions can influence mental health and the ways that mental health can affect attributions. Explore how and why people engage in self-handicapping attributions and behaviors.
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Figure 5. Data are from Blackwell et al. Because we each use our own expectations in judgment, people may form different impressions of the same person performing the same behavior. Individual differences in the cognitive accessibility of a given personal characteristic may lead to more overlap in the descriptions provided by the same perceiver about different people than there is in those provided by different perceivers about the same target person.
People with a strong need for cognition make more causal attributions overall. Entity theorists tend to focus on the traits of other people and tend to make a lot of personal attributions, whereas incremental theorists tend to believe that personalities change a lot over time and therefore are more likely to make situational attributions for events. Individual differences in attributional styles can influence how we respond to the negative events that we experience. People who have extremely negative attributional styles, in which they continually make external, stable, and global attributions for their behavior, are said to be experiencing learned helplessness.
Self-handicapping is an attributional technique that prevents us from making ability attributions for our own failures. Having a positive outlook is healthy, but it must be tempered. We cannot be unrealistic about what we can and cannot do. Think of a time when your own expectations influenced your attributions about another person.
To further illustrate this process, check out the GIF below. These are simple examples, but they demonstrate the types of shortcuts our brains make all the time to quickly make sense of the world. These shortcuts are known as the Gestalt principles of visual perception , and they detail how our brains create structure by default. But why is understanding this important for web and mobile design? Great designers understand the powerful role that psychology plays in visual perception.
How does their mind react to the message your piece is sharing? Think about that quote for a minute.
risennycame.tk When people first see your designs, how do they experience them? To understand what makes UI design work, you need to understand the psychology of human perception. This is what allows us to create meaning in a complex and chaotic world. And having a solid understanding of how these principles work will help you in three ways.
The figure-ground principle states that people instinctively perceive objects as either being in the foreground or the background. They either stand out prominently in the front the figure or recede into the back the ground. In the image above, for example, your eye instantly sees a white apple sitting on a black background. This determination will occur quickly and subconsciously in most cases. When people use your website or mobile app, one of the first things they do on each screen is to determine which is the figure and which is the ground.
The Basecamp homepage has a bunch of graphics, text, forms, and other information. And because of the figure-ground principle, you can immediately tell that you should focus on the content in the white foreground areas.
AngelList uses the figure-ground principle in two ways below.