Traffic Flow Fundamentals

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Why not share! Lecture 02 Traffic Flow Characteris Embed Size px.

Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Engineering. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Tahir Lehri. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. To design traffic controllers, it is very important to understand the basics of traffic flow theory. This chapter presents the relevant fundamentals of traffic flow theory. Traffic flow theory is mainly presented from the macroscopic perspective where aggregate traffic variables, such as traffic flow, traffic density, and average traffic speed, are considered.

The macroscopic characteristics are also related to the microscopic behavior of traffic. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Greenshields, B. Google Scholar. Greenberg, H. CrossRef Google Scholar.


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Underwood, R. All traffic destined to the Web Server from the Untrust zone will have a destination public IP of Since the traffic is originating from the Untrust Zone and destined to an IP in the Untrust Zone, this traffic is allowed by an implicit rule that allows same zone traffic. At this stage, the firewall has the final destination zone DMZ , but the actual translation of the IP from After determining the information of the final destination zone for the post NAT traffic, the firewall does a second security policy lookup to find a policy that allows traffic destined to the final destination zone, DMZ.

In the above example, Rule Y is configured to block adult category websites using the URL category option present in the security policies. Web-browsing application must be explicitly mentioned in the policies when using the URL category option in the security policies.

Fundamentals of Transportation and Traffic Operations

Otherwise, irrelevant traffic with match this rule. This section discusses "application dependency" and describes what happens to the session when the application-id changes in the middle of a session. In the following example, security policies are defined to allow and deny traffic matching the following criteria. While committing the configuration changes, the following application dependency warnings may be viewed. As more packets for these sessions pass through the firewall, more information to identify the application is available to the firewall.

Traffic flow - Wikipedia

The firewall then shifts the application to respective applications like Gotomeeting and Youtube. Whenever an application shift happens, the firewall does a new security policy lookup to find the closest rule matching the new application.

Lecture 05 Traffic Characteristics

So in the above case, SSL and web-browsing are called dependent applications for Gotomeeting and YouTube, thus these applications should also be allowed in the security policies. If the application of the traffic changes in the middle of the session, then a second security policy lookup rematches the traffic against the security policies to find the new closest matching policy. In the above example, a new security policy, "Dependency Apps rule," is created to allow the SSL and web-browsing. Youtube traffic initially matches this rule and once the application shift happens, a second security policy lookup is matches against Rule Applications for some protocols can be allowed without the need to explicitly allow their dependencies see: How to Check if an Application Needs to have Explicitly Allowed Dependency Apps.

In the above example, Facebook and gmail-base are such applications that depend on SSL and web-browsing and don't need their dependency apps explicitly allowed.

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However, applications like YouTube, that make use of SSL,need to be decrypted by the firewall for their identification. Since SSL connections are encrypted, the firewall has no visibility into this traffic in order to identify it.

The firewall makes uses the common name field present in the certificate for application identification. This is exchanged in clear text during the SSL handshake process. Some websites like YouTube use a certificate with wildcard name as the common name.

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Traffic-4-TrafficFlowFundamentals.ppt - Traffic Flow...

So using this information for application identification is not possible, and SSL decryption must be configured to get visibility into the URL of the website. Some environments require logging all traffic denied and allowed by the firewall. By default, only traffic that is explicitly allowed by the firewall is logged. To log traffic that is allowed by the firewall's implicit rules, refer to:. The following criteria is checked by the firewall in the same order to match the traffic against a security policy.


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  • In the above configuration example, when application "web-browsing" on TCP port 80 from the Trust zone to the Untrust zone passes through the firewall, a security lookup is done in the following way:. The optimal way of configuring security policies is to minimize the use of "any" and be specific with the values, when possible. This reduces unnecessary security policy lookups performed by the Palo Alto Networks device. How Session Rematch Works.